Network Myanmar

Illegal migration from Bengal into Arakan after 1948 

The purpose of this page is to collate evidence of illegal migration into Myanmar after World War II, but not to argue in favour of a particular incidence of movement, which would be highly problematic. The evidence might suggest that during the three decades from independence in 1948 to the exodus in 1978 as a result of Operation Nagamin, there was a significant influx of migrants into Arakan, but that since then the outflow has also been considerable, including a massive exodus in 2017.

The following documents merit attention in this context, so that readers can make up their own minds about the extent and the significance of illegal migration.


The Governor of Burma writes to the Governor of Bengal - 8 February 1947

UK National Archives File FO 643/61/1 of 1947 - 22GSO47

Extract: "My Government is very concerned over the illegal immigration into Burma from the Chittagong area. Recently one of the Members of my Executive Council visited the Arakan and he reports that some 63,000 illegal entries have made their way into the towns of Buthidaung and Maungdaw. I do not know how true this is but undoubtedly there is a great deal of criticism regarding this immigration from the indigenous people of Arakan. I expect my Government will be taking the matter up officially with the Government of India but I thought that you would like to know in the first instance."

Note by Derek Tonkin:This personal letter was written only three days before the Panglong Conference, to which none of the ethnicities in Arakan Division was invited. Four months later the British administration passed the Burma Immigration (Emergency Provisions) Act to counter the growing level of illegal immigration from China and East Pakistan. Even in February 1947 however unauthorised migration into Burma was illegal. The number of 63,000 would account for about one-third of the total number of Muslims living in Northern Arakan (Akyab District) at that time. Reporting from Akyab on 18 May 1949, or just over two years later, Special Correspondent for The Scotsman Michael Davidson put the number of Pakistani citizens in the district at some 80,000.

Minority Problems in South East Asia – Virginia Thompson and Richard Adloff

Stanford University Press 1955

Extract: Page 154 -  “In the meantime northern Arakan had become the scene of even more serious trouble. The postwar illegal migration of Chittagonians into the area was on a vast scale, and in the Maungdaw and Buthidaung areas they replaced the Arakanese, who had to withdraw because of wartime bombing. The newcomers were called Mujahids (crusaders), in contrast to the Rwangya or settled Chittagonian population, and though there were economic differences between them, both groups were Muslims and together came to outnumber the Arakan Buddhists. The Muslims of northern Arakan not only were smuggling huge quantities of rice into Pakistan but were beginning to press for annexation of the area to that country.


“As early as May 1946 the Mujahids voiced their desire for separation from the Buddhist Arakanese and Burmans, and appealed to Jinnah for help. Two months later the North Arakan Muslim League was formed in Akyab district, under the presidency of Moulvi Lookman Sahib, and it members immediately passed a resolution formally asking for union with their fellow Muslims across the border. The Rwangya element was reportedly not in favour of this move; the Arakanese branch of the AFPFL actively opposed it; and Jinnah himself later assured Aung San that he had discouraged Mujahid aspirations.”

Note by Derek Tonkin: “Rwangya” was the name by which long-settled Muslims in Arakan, whose ancestors migrated into Arakan before the British arrival in 1826, said they wished to be known. It was one of several names based on the Bengali word for Arakan – “Rohang” - and which Arakan Muslims were starting to consider in various communities as an alternative to “Chittagonian”.

British Ambassador reports on the visit of the Pakistani Foreign Minister

Foreign Office Archives: Despatch - 28 January 1964


Extract: Paragraph 7 - "The Moslems in that portion of Arakan which adjoins the border with East Pakistan number about 400,000 and have lived there for generations and have acquired Burmese nationality. But they are patently of Pakistani origin and occasionally some Pakistanis cross into Arakan illegally and mingle with the local population. As part of a drive to detect these illegal immigrants the local Burmese authorities have for some time employed extremely oppressive measures. The Pakistan Government are anxious that these Arakanese Moslems should not be goaded into leaving Burma and taking refuge in East Pakistan which cannot support them. Mr. Bhutto therefore urged the Burmese to modify their attitude towards these people and offered the maximum cooperation in dealing with any genuine illegal immigrants."

Note by Derek Tonkin: At the time I was Burma Desk Officer in the Foreign Office and processed the Despatch on arrival, as the archived file shows.



Federal German Ambassador in Karachi reports on the visit of General Ne Win

Auswärtiges Amt Archives - 22 February 1965


Extract:  "Also discussed was the problem of the roughly 250,000 Moslems resident in the Province of Arakan whose nationality is unclarified because the Burmese regime regards them as illegal immigrants from East Pakistan. A majority of these Pakistani immigrants who are unable to prove that they have been resident in Burma for at least three generations are being and will be deported by the Burmese authorities to East Pakistan, but both sides are concerned not to play up these events, and only very occasionally do Pakistani press reports on this subject appear. The delimitation of the open border between both countries could shortly be resolved through an agreement".

Federal German Ambassador to Pakistan Günther Scholl reporting in his letter dated 22 February 1965 to the Auswärtiges Amt on the visit to Pakistan by General Ne Win, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council: 12 – 19 February 1965


Note by Derek Tonkin: The Ambassador appears to be saying that the status of the entire Muslim population in Arakan was in dispute (“ungeklärt”) and only those who can show residence over at least three generations would be allowed to stay. The principle of three generations is a corner-stone of both the 1948 Citizenship Act and of the 1982 Citizenship Law and is frequently referred to by senior officials and ministers, though this principle is not the main-corner stone (or "gold standard" - Nick Cheesman) which is membership of a national race.



Record of a Call on the Bangladeshi Ambassador in Rangoon in December 1975

Foreign and Commonwealth Office Archives – 23 December 1975


Extract: Paragraph 5 – He [Bangladeshi Ambassador Kaiser] admitted that there were upward of ½ million Bangalese trespassers in Arakan whom the Burmese had some right to eject. He had implored the Burmese authorities not to press this issue during Bangladesh’s present troubles [coups of August and November 1975] and had been pleased that the Burmese had not taken advantage of his country’s misfortunes in this respect. He denied that there had been any fresh exodus into Burma.”

Note by Derek Tonkin: It seems doubtful that the Bangladeshi Ambassador actually spoke of “upward of ½ million trespassers” as that number would represent the total number of Arakan Muslims (less the Kaman) then resident in Arakan. The 1983 Census lists only 497,208 “Bangladeshis”, that is, Arakan Muslims, as living in Arakan. However, even supposing that what Ambassador Kaiser actually said was more on the lines that "among the upward of  ½ million Arakan Muslims there were some/many trespassers whom the Burmese had every right to eject", it is clear that illegal migration was indeed a serious problem.

Report by Alan C. Lindquist (Head of UNHCR Sub-office Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, 1978)  June, 1979

Kaladan Press - 13 October 2006

Extract: The roots of this mass exodus can evidently be traced to increased immigration from Bangladesh in recent years into this isolated area somewhat tenuously controlled by the central government of the Union of Burma, and to the apparent growth of a movement for the autonomy or independence of the Arakan among both the Buddhists and the Muslims of the area. While some of the Buddhist community wanted independence for the Arakan state, they were also afraid of absorption into Bangladesh.

Letter from British Ambassador in Rangoon Charles Booth to the FCO in May 1982

Foreign and Commonwealth Office Archives - 12 May 1982

Extract: Paragraph 8 - The new [citizenship] bill reflects little credit on the legislators and ultimately on the regime as a whole and I see it as another move in Burma's policy of keeping itself "pure" of foreign involvement. It immediate concern, I assume, is with illegal Bengali migration into Arakan.

“The Muslims of Burma” Moshe Yegar

Chapter 7 of “The Crescent in the East: Islam in Asia Major” Curzon Press 1989

Extract: Page 104The average ratio for the five censuses from 1891 to 1931 was 347 Muslims per 10,000, and while we have no statistical data for the position today [1989] we may assume that the proportion still stands at about four percent, as in 1931; for while a great many Indians, including Muslims as well as Hindus, fled the country in the wake of the Japanese invasion during World War II, many of them came back upon the return of the British, and in addition there has been a substantial Chittagong migration from India to North  Arakan, as well as expulsion of Indians, many of them Muslims, from Burma, since Ne Win’s seizure of power [1962].

Note by Derek Tonkin: While the percentage of Muslims in Myanmar as a whole remained  at 4.34% at the 2014 Census, the situation in Arakan included "a significant Chittagong migration" compensated by an exodus of Muslims from other parts of Myanmar during the late 1960s.


Five related articles on illegal immigration 

Extract from Asian Survey February 1979 - William Scully and Frank Trager

Extract from Chapter IV of 'Arakan' by Klaus Fleischmann, Hamburg 1981

The Muslim population in Arakan - Peter Nicolaus, Senior Repatriation Officer, 1995

Unpacking the presumed statelessness of Rohingyas - Nyi Nyi Kyaw 2017

“Illegal immigration” in Arakan: myths and numbers – Carlos Sardina Galache 2018


Note by Derek Tonkin: Klaus Fleischmann's book “Arakan - Konfliktregion zwischen Birma und Bangladesh” (in German) has the most comprehensive account of “Operation Nagamin” in 1977 and 1978 which resulted in the flight of some 200,000 Arakan Muslims to Bangladesh. 

Both Nyi Nyi Kyaw and Carlos Galache misinterpret the significance of the apparently small number of illegal migrants actually detained in Arakan (1,849 out of a total of 2,296). Nyi Nyi Kyaw wrote: “…. it is important that Na-Ga-Min did not find thousands or tens of thousands of illegal Bengalis in Rakhine State as the BSPP government claimed prior to, during, and even after the operation.”  Common sense tells us that the authorities found so few because they had already fled; they were not likely to wait around until they were arrested,

In Sittwe City, where sample checks were made in peaceful conditions, a total of 1,025 were convicted out of  36,824 examined, or 2.8% - still a relatively high percentage assuming that most illegals would have disappeared out of town for the day. Both Fleischmann and Nicolaus show that when the inspection teams moved north, physical resistance in Buthidaung made it necessary to call in the Army to deal with serious civil unrest, as a result of which many tens of thousands of Arakan Muslims abandoned their homes and fled to Bangladesh. Nicolaus also refers to insurgency by the Rohingya Patriotic Front at the time. Some refugees would undoubtedly have fled because they were illegal migrants. Nyi Nyi Kyaw and Carlos Galache do not apparently believe so. It is however perfectly understandable that the authorities found few illegal residents in Buthidaung (594), and later in Maungdaw (230). What is perhaps surprising is that they still found so many.

It should be noted that Paragraph 475 of the Final Report of the International Independent Fact-Finding Mission dated 17 September 2018 recorded that: "The Government claimed that the number of Rohingya escaping from scrutiny [in 1978] was an admission of their illegal status. However, analysis suggests that the number of alleged illegal immigrants identified was very low", giving Nyi Nyi Kyaw's article in Footnote No. 1050 as their source. (The Government did not, of course, use the term "Rohingya".) 

Analysis in fact suggests, as I have already shown,  exactly the opposite. The majority of those who fled to Bangladesh came from seriously disturbed areas of Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships, not from central Arakan. Yet is was in Sittwe City, where the census had been peaceful,  that the percentage of illegals detained was highest - 2.8% (1,025) out of a total of 36,824 questioned. Even before the inspection teams arrived in Buthidaung, "mass hysteria" (Fleischmann, UNDP Director Zagorin) had already gripped the local Muslim population. 



Seit Twe Maung 1960 


The extent to which Chittagonian migrants into Arakan have usurped the identity of the indigenous Arakan Muslims was also the subject of hard hitting article by Seit Twe Maung, quite possibly a pseudonym, entitled “Rohengya affairs" in the publication “Rakhine Tanzaung Magazine” Vol. 2 No. 9 1960-61. While expressing his sympathy for “those Arakan Muslims who have stayed among us for generations. We will continue to regard them as our kinsmen and our brethren”, he criticises Muslim writer Ba Tha for a recent publication about the history of “Roewengyas” and concludes: “It is quite clear why Ba Tha and his comrades are trying to create these Chittagonian settlers as an indigenous separate race.” Ba Tha’s article asserted that the descendants of early Arab settlers were called Rowenhynas who later became Roewanyas. Seit Twe Maung clearly doesn’t believe a word of all this and tells us why in considerable detail. 



That Thu 1963


The August 1963 edition of “The Guardian Monthly” carried an informative article on “Akyab [Sittwe], the Capital of Arakan” by the columnist Tha Htu, who lambasts “the ungracious politicians of Akyab who indiscriminately go in for black-market, smuggling and harbouring or bringing illegal immigrants from East Pakistan to get into electoral rolls for their sake of their party [the AFPFL dissolved the previous year]. He refers also to “those slave labourers” known as “Royankya or Arakanese Muslims” and observes: “The immigrants of the Chittagonian race find their way into the society of the local Royankya and gradually they become absorbed with them. Eventually they also claim to be Royangya [sic], descendants of the Muslim slaves in Arakan. Consequently, the Arakanese are slowly but surely being ousted by the peaceful penetration of the Chittagonians in every walk of life.” [Akyab District eventually became Sittwe, Mrauk-U and Maungdaw Districts.]




(with comments by Derek Tonkin)

The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan - Dr Aye Chan, SOAS May 2005

Dr Aye Chan is a well known Rakhine nationalist. The inclusion of his article does not imply endorsement of his views. The article however merited sponsorship by the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

The Other Side of the Rohingya: Asia Week - 14 July 1978

The Rangoon Correspondent of Asia Week ponders on the rising number of  Chittagong Muslims whom he met on his secret visit to Arakan soon after the flight of most refugees to Bangladesh.

US Telegram: SLORC State Chairman estimates 50,000 illegals - 8 May 1978

SLORC Chairman for Rakhine State expresses his views about the exodus of Arakan Muslims then in progress. Major Kyaw Maung was a noted hard-liner. The Bangladesh Consul in Akyab is however reported as saying that illegal migration had been "minimal in recent years".

UK Ambassador Willan  writes to London on Burma/Bangladesh - 14 January 1972

An informative account of a discussion with the Burmese Foreign Minister Colonel Hla Han on Burma's recognition of Bangladesh and on the influx of military and civilian personnel. The number of refugees "had now been reduced to about 2,000". It is however suggested that many other migrants used this opportunity of chaos at the border to slip unnoticed into Arakan and avoid registration as "refugees".

Statement by Myanmar MFA on the Situation in Rakhine State - 21 February 1992

In this statement, we read: "Since the First Anglo-Myanmar War in 1824, people of Muslim faith from the adjacent country illegally entered Myanmar Naing-Ngan, particularly Rakhine State. Being illegal immigrants, they do not hold any immigration papers like the other nationals of the country." This is effectively contradicted by the statement of President U Thein Sein on 11 July 2012 at a meeting with UNHCR Antonio Guterres that "Bengalis came to Myanmar because the British colonialists invited them in prior to 1948, when Myanmar gained independence from Britain, to work in the agricultural sector. Some Bengalis settled here because it was convenient for them to do so, and according to Myanmar law, the third generation of those who arrived before 1948 can be granted Myanmar citizenship." These comments by the President clearly imply that migration into Arakan under British rule was not illegal and have greater authority than the MFA statement.

Document detailing Rakhine concerns about illegal immigration - 15 October 2013

One of a collection of  documents said to be "leaked" and obtained by Al Jazeera setting out the concerns and recommendations for government action by Rakhine politicians and activists. The documents are translations and there is no reason to doubt their authenticity. The issue of illegal migration is paramount in the minds of contributors.

A Land in Conflict on Myanmar’s Western Frontier – Martin Smith TNI December 2019

Extract Page 50: “It needs to be stressed that there is no evidence to support that migration on any significant scale happened. In fact, the greatest movement occurred in the other direction. But this accusation remains an integral part of the anti-Rohingya narrative in Rakhine State today.”


It is exceptionally difficult to provide conclusive evidence either that there was, or that there was not significant migration into Arakan at any time after 1945. Martin Smith has written a brilliant essay on the problems of Rakhine State on the basis of an historical narrative and his views on the matter of illegal immigration merit respect. It should also be noted that in Endnote 20 on Page 146, he records that officials estimate illegal immigration at “up to 20 per cent of the Muslim population”.