Network Myanmar

       Arakan - Rohingya/Muslim issues

This webpage reproduces a similar page on the former Network Myanmar website. The former page also has links to events in Arakan during the years 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. 

A selection of studies on Arakan, offering a range of perspectives

A. International Court of Justice

1. Website of the International Court of Justice: Gambia v Myanmar : Sitemap

[ ICJ Website pages on South Africa v. Israel, as comparison]

[ ICJWebsite pages on Ukraine v. Russia, as comparison]

2. Genocide: Gambia to file case against Myanmar at ICJ" - The Daily Star 20 October 2019

3. PQ UK House of Commons 23 October 2019 

4. "Unofficial" press release on the ICJ website - 11 November 2019

5. Text of the lawsuit  on the ICJ website - 11 November 2019

6. Analysis Brief by the International Commission of Jurists - 5 December 2019

7. Public Hearings 10-12 December 2019 ICJ The Hague - official verbatim transcripts

8. Transcript of Aung San Suu Kyi's address to the ICJ on 11 December 2019

9. Joint Statement by Canada and The Netherlands on support for Gambia - 19 December 2019

10. PQ UK House of Commons - 9 January 2020

11. PQ UK House of Commons - 13 January 2020

12. Order of the ICJ on Provisional Measures - 23 January 2020

13. ICJ Press Release on the Occasion of the ICJ Order - 23 January 2020

14. Separate Opinion of Vice-President Xue - 23 January 2020

15. Separate Opinion of Judge Cançado Trindade - 23 January 2020 

16. Declaration of Judge ad hoc Kress - 23 January 2020

17. Summary of the Order on Provisional Measures - 23 January 2020

18. Press Release by the Myanmar Ministry of Foreign Affairs - 23 January 2020

19. Statement by the EU Spokesperson on the ICJ Order - 23 January 2020

20. Statement attributable to the UN Secretary-General - 23 January 2020

21. The Maldives to file declaration of intervention - 25 February 2020

22. Foreign Ministers of Maldives and The Gambia discuss intervention - 25 March 2020

23. Joint Statement by Canada and The Netherlands on Intention - 2 September 2020

24. The Maldives welcomes the Canada-Netherlands Joint Statement - 4 September 2020

25. PQ House of Commons - 24 November 2020

26. Adoption of New Article on Monitoring Provisional Measures - 21 December 2020

27. Written Question House of Commons - 14 April 2021

28. Announcement by the NUG on the withdrawal of preliminary objections - 1 February 2022

29. The ICJ and the issue of lawful representation; FORSEA - 18 February 2022

30. Judgment on Preliminary Objections - 22 July 2022

31. Dissenting Opinion of Judge Xue - 22 July 2022

32. Declaration of Judge ad hoc Kress - 22 July 2022

33. Summary of Judgment - 22 July 2022

34. Press Release 2022/24 - 22 July 2022

35. ICJ Judgment on Preliminary Objections: Reaction from The Gambia - Reaction from Myanmar

36. Joint Statement of Canada and The Netherlands - 22 July 2022

37. Statement by German Foreign Ministry on intention to intervene - 25 August 2022

38. Written Reply to PQ about progress of UK intention to intervene - 16 December 2022

39. France announces its intention to intervene: Elysée Palace - 11 September 2023

40. Declaration of Intervention by The Maldives - 15 November 2023

41. Declaration of Intervention by Canada and five European countries - 15 November 2023

42. Press Release on seven Declarations of Intervention - 16 November 2023

B. ICJ Opinion and Commentary

1. Challenges for the ICJ in the Reliance on UN F-FM Reports: Michael Becker 14 December 2019

2. The Court indicates Provisional Measures - Priya Pillai 21 January 2020

3. Genocide Case against Myanmar at the ICJ - DLA Piper analysis - 24 January 2020

4. Center for Global Policy: "No Place for Optimism"  May 2020. A preview of Myanmar's Report

5. Opinion in "Just Security" - Five articles on Gambia v. Myanmar at the ICJ : July 2020

6 The Republic of The Gambia v Facebook Inc - Priya Pillai 8 August 2020

7. Facebook wanted to be a force for good in Myanmar... - Matthew Smith Time 18 August 2020

8. Canada and The Netherlands: New Intervention - Priya Pillai 3 September 2020

9, Third State intervention in the Rohingya Genocide - Part I Brian McGarry 11 September 2020

10. Third State intervention in  the Rohingya Genocide - Part II Brian McGarry 11 September 2020

11. Genocide Allegations and Provisional Measures in Gambia v Myanmar - Michael A Becker

12. Burma Rohingya Organisation UK - November 2020 Briefing: "Dereliction of Duty" 

13. Incidental Proceedings likely to follow in Gambia v Myanmar: Kawser Ahmed 20 Nov 2020

14. Letter from Rushanara Ali MP and Jeremy Hunt MP to Dominic Raab 17 December 2020

15. Notes by Derek Tonkin on this letter - 6 January 2021

16. Special Report: Pompeo rejected US effort to declare "genocide" - WHBL Radio 25 March 2021

17. The case for making Myanmar's report public: New Lines Institute - 22 May 2021

18. Myanmar's case at the ICJ: Briefing Paper by the SAC-M: 6 February 2022

19. Discussion M Becker, K Southwich, M Zarni on ICL: Youtube - 10 February 2022

20. Is the ICJ at risk of providing cover for the alleged genocide in Myanmar? EIJL  - 11 Feb 2022

21. Questions and Answers on the Gambia-Myanmar case: Human Rights Watch - 14 Feb 2022

22. The ICJ and Lawful Representation of Myanmar: Genocide Watch -17 Feb 2022

23. BROUK ICJ Briefing - 23 May 2022

24. Inching forward, but a long road ahead: Rebecca Barber - Just Security - 19 September 2022

25. Juliette McIntyre: "Procedural Implications of Intervention". Voelkerrechtsblog 11 Oct 2022

26. Juliette McIntyre: How does the ICC differ from the ICJ on Genocide? 8 January 2024

C. ICJ Miscellaneous

1. Text of Genocide Convention - UNGA Resolution of 9 December 1948

2.  Guidance to UN officials on use of the term "Genocide" - document created 8 March 2017

3. Michael Becker: The Gambia v. Facebook (Obtaining Evidence) - Part I  and  Part II

D. International Criminal Court

1 (a) ICC Prosecution Request - 9 April 2018

1 (b) Jurisdiction over alleged deportation of Rohingya people: Request granted 6 September 2018

1 (c)  Partially dissenting opinion by Judge Marc Perrin de Brichambaut 6 September 2018

2. Court Records on this case

3. Statement by Adama Dieng, UN Special Adviser on Genocide: 7 September 2018

4. Press Statement by the Office of the President on the ICC decision: 7 September 2018

5. John Bolton theatens sanctions against the ICC: The Hill 10 September 2018

6. Fatou Bensouda requests ICC authorisation to commence investigation in Afghanistan - 2017

7. 'Bangkok Post' Editorial: ICC's leap in the dark - 10 September 2018

8. Statement by Fatou Bensouda on opening a preliminary investigation - 18 September 2018

9. Article by Haydee Dijkstal on the ICC decision in the ASIL "Insights" - 26 November 2018

10. Statement at the Conclusion of Visit by Office of the ICC Prosecutor 6-11 March 2019

11. ICC Decision on the on the Constitution of Pre-Trial Chamber III - 25 June 2019

12. Statement by the Prosecution seeking authorisation to proceed with an investigation - 4 July 2019

13. Decision on requests for leave to submit amicus curiae observations - 14 November 2019

14. ICC authorises opening of an investigation into the situation in B'desh/Myanmar - 14 November 2019

15. Decision on the authorisation of an investigation into the situation - 14 November 2019

16. ICC Case Documents and Overview - Bangladesh/Myanmar

17. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

18. Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Criminal Court

19. Can the NUG delegate jurisdiction to the ICC? Ending Impunity - Fortify Rights August 2021

20. Bangladesh-Myanmar Military Partnership's Impact: Shafiur Rahman - 19 March 2023

21. Rohingya Perspectives on Post-Atrocity Justice: Rebecca Hamilton - 11 June 2024

E. Independent Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar mandated by the UN Human Rights Council

1. Resolution 34/22 2017 of the Human Rights Council

2. Advance Unedited Version of the Fact-Finding Mission Report - 24 August 2018

3. Press Release by the OHCHR - 27 August 2018

4. UK FCO Minister Mark Field comments on the Report - 27 August 2018

5. Report of the Fact-Finding Mission - 12 September 2018

6. Final Report of the detailed findings of the Fact-Finding Mission - 17 September 2018

7. OHCHR Press Notice on the occasion of the release of the F-FM Report - 18 September 2018

8. Resolution of the UN HRC on Myanmar at their 39th Session - 25 September 2018

9. Resolution adopted by the HRC - 27 September 2018

10. UN Report raises troubling questions: Raphel G Boutnik-Chen Algemeiner 10 October 2018

11. UN Press Release about discussion at the 8381st meeting of the UNSC 24 October 2018

12. Record of 8381st meeting of the UNSC 24 October 2018

13. Edith Lederer reports for AP on Press Conference and UNSC Meeting 25 October 2018

14. Speech by Radhika Coomaraswamy on the Rohingya question 3 May 2018

15. Critical comments on this speech by Derek Tonkin 21 December 2018

16. Mission urges finananical isolation of Myanmar military - 14 May 2019

17. The Economic Interests of the Myanmar Military - 5 August 2019

18. Report of the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar - 7 August 2019

19 Report of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar - 8 August 2019

20. Sexual and gender-based violence in Myanmar - 22 August 2019

21. Myanmar's Rohingya living under threat of Genocide, UN experts say - 16 September 2019

22. Statement to the HRC by the Chair of the IIF-FM Marzuki Darusman - 17 September 2019

23. OHCHR Compendium of Reports by the Fact-Finding Mission

24. A Trilogy of Comment by Derek Tonkin on the Fact-Finding Mission 

F. Independent Investigative Mission for Myanmar

1. Mandate, Documentation, Press Releases, Statements - OHCHR Website

2. IIMM dedicated website established July 2020

3. Publication of IIMM Analytical Reports: Statement by N Koujmian - 27 March 2024

G.I. "Universal Jurisdiction" lawsuit filed in Argentina 

        Background 1: The Quiet Expansion of Universal Jurisdiction - EJIL 2019 Vol 30 No.3

        Background 2: Universal Jurisdiction Annual Review for 2022 - Trial International

Background 3: The Argentinian Exercise of UJ: Opinio Juris M Velasquez - 4 Feb 2022

Background 4: María Romilda Servini de Cubría - presides over Federal Court No.1

1. (a) BROUK and Quintana file lawsuit in Argentina: RFA - 4 November 2019  (b) BROUK Petition

2. BROUK: Argentina Courts urged to prosecute military and officials - 13 November 2019 

3. Justice, Argentina and 'Universal Jurisdiction': T Kean Frontier Myanmar - 4 December 2019

4. BROUK: Argentinean Judiciary moves closer to opening case - 1 June 2020               

5. BROUK: Universal Jurisdiction, the ICC and the Rohingya Genocide - 23 October 2020        

6. Trial International:  Court to decide on appeal against dismissal of case - 12 August 2021        

7. BROUK: Rohingya Genocide Survivors will get Historic Day in Court - 15 August 2021

8. Opinio Juris: Inching closer to a historic Universal Jurisdiction case - 30 September 2021

9. Press Release by Fortify Rights in support as amicus curiae- 30 September 2021

10. Should Argentina exercise universal jurisdiction over the Rohingya case? DPLF19 Oct 2021

11. Spanish text of the Appeal Court decision revoking the lower court dismissal - 26 Nov 2021

12. Argentine court could hear genocide case - Patricia Bianco 27 November 2021

13. Historic decision by Argentinian courts to take up case: BROUK - 28 November 2021

14. Argentine court to hear Myanmar Rohingya genocide case: Financial Times - 28 Nov 2021

15. Argentina to investigate crimes of humanity against Rohingya - Patricia Blanco 28 Nov 2021

16. Argentina to probe Myanmar war crimes claims: Buenos Aires Times - 30 November 2021

17. Amicus Curiae Submision to Argentine Federal Court - FortifyRights 1 October 2021

18. Argentina comes to the aid of the Myanmar Rohingyas: Christine Chaumeau - 10 December 2021

19. BROUK President's Testimony opens Rohingya Genocide case in Argentina - 15 Dec 2021

20. Officials ordered not to accept letters from ICC and Argentinian Federal Court - 1 Jan 2022

21. BROUK: Argentinian judiciary asks Facebook to clarify role: 7 March 2022

22. Argentine Court hears allegations of Genocide against Myanmar leaders: RFA - 7 June 2023

23. Rapes and massacres detailed in Rohingya genocide case: RFA - 13 June 2023

24. International arrest warrants sought for Min Aung Hlaing and others: BROUK - 6 Dec 2023

25. Interview with Quintana on the "Universal Jurisdiction" case in Argentina: RFA - 6 May 2024

G.II. "Independent Jurisdiction" lawsuit filed in Germany

        Background 1. Website of the Federal Public Prosecutor - in German and in English

Background 2. German Code of Crimes Against International Law (CCAIL)

Background 3. German Code of Criminal Procedure

        Background 4: Universal Jurisdiction Annual Review for 2022 - Trial International 

        Background 5: Definition of "Stukturermittlungsverfahren"

        Background 6: The Legal Framework for Universal Jurisdiction in Germany: HRW 2014

Background 7: Universal Jurisdiction in Germany: Briefing by Trial International: 2019

Background 8: The Exercise of UJ in Germany: Jenny Gesley - 30 June 2022

Background 9: Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Einführung des VStGB: 13 March 2002 

        Background 10: Statement on UJ: 22 October 2021 - UNGA 6th Committee

Background 11: British Government Practice on UJ - 2018

Background 12: EP Workshop - UJ Constraints and Best Practices: 2018

1. Press Release by Fortify Rights - 24 January 2023

"The complaint announced today alleges that the Myanmar military systematically killed, raped, tortured, imprisoned, disappeared, persecuted, and committed other acts that amount to genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in violation of the German Code of Crimes Against International Law. The complaint includes substantial evidence showing that senior military junta officials exercised superior responsibility over subordinates who committed crimes, knew about their subordinates’ crimes, and failed to take any action to prevent the crimes from happening and to punish the perpetrators.

"The complaint is on file with the German authorities and is not publicly available.

"In the complaint, Fortify Rights and the complainants request that the German Prosecutor open an investigation into specific military officials and others who, according to evidence, are liable for mass atrocity crimes. The complaint also requests that the German authorities open a 'structural investigation' into the situation in Myanmar, which would uncover numerous other crimes in various locations and affecting other ethnic groups not otherwise covered by the complaint."

2. Op-Ed on the exclusion of Rohingya from the 2020 elections and Aung San Suu Kyi's role - 27 July 2020

3. Strafanzeige gegen Myanmars Generäle in Deutschland - FAZ 24 January 2023

4. Rohingya und Putsch-Überlebende klagen in Deutschland - Der Spiegel 24 January 2023

5. Matthew Smith interviewed by Maria Stöhr in Bangkok: Der Spiegel 31 January 2023

6. Library of Congress: FALQs on The Exercise of Universal Jurisdiction in Germany: 30 June 2022

7. UN Sixth Committee Meeting discusses Principles of Universal Jurisdiction - 10 October 2018

8. FRG Statement to the Sixth Committee on Universal Jurisdiction - 22 October 2021 

9. Universal Jurisdiction in Germany: Briefing by Trial International - March 2019

10. Profiles of Complainants: (i) Abdul Rasheed - 20 February 2023

11. Andrea M Pelliconi and Francesca S de Gregorio: On complementarity etc. EJIL - 7 March 2023

12. Letter dated 11 October 2023 from Federal Public Prosecutor declining to investigate - NYA 

13. Press Release by Fortify Rights on the Federal Public Prosecutor's decision - 30 Nov 2023

14. German Prosecutor rejects Petition: Sebastian Strangio: The Diplomat - 1December 2023

H. Independent Commission of Enquiry (ICOE) to examine alleged Human Rights Violations

                          Archived Website of the Independent Commission of Enquiry

                  Archived Reports of the ICOE in the TOAEP ICC Legal Tools Data-base

1. Press Release No. 8/2018 by the Office of the President - 30 July 2018

2. Press Release No. 9/2018 by the Office of the President - 9 August 2018

3. International Commission of Jurists: ICOE cannot deliver justice or accountability - 7 Sep 2018

4. Rakhine Enquiry to focus on evidence, not fake news: Myanmar Times 14 December 2018

5. Press Release by the ICOE on the Submission of their Final Report - 20 January 2020

6. Press Release by the Office of the President on the ICOE Report - GNLM 21 January 2020

7. Executive Summary of the ICOE Report released on 21 January 2020

8. Press Release by the Office of the Attorney-General - GNLM 22 January 2020

9. Press Release by the Tatmadaw - GNLM 23 January 2020

10. Local EU Statement on Accountability for International Crimes - 27 January 2020

11. Annexes  16-28 of the ICOE's Final Report released on 25 January 2020

12. Article in the Financial Times by Aung San Suu Kyi on the ICOE Report - 23 January 2020

13. ICOE staffer embroiled in conflict of interest - Frontier Myanmar 29 January 2020

14. Presidential Directive No. 2/2020 on the Preservation of Evidence - 8 April 2020

15  'The Irrawaddy' reports on the Presidential Directive - 9 April 2020

16. Announcement by Union Attorney-General's Office re ICOE prosecutions - 15 May 2020

17. Press Release by the Attorney-General's Office on the ICOE Final Report - 23 November 2020

I. Advisory Board for the Implementation of Recommendations on Rakhine State

1. Establishment of the Advisory Board - GNLM 18 December 2017

2. Press Release by the Office of the State Counsellor - 25 January 2018

3. Statement by Gov. Bill Richardson on his resignation from the Board - 24 January 2018

4. Interview with Chairman Dr Surakiart Sathirathai: GNLM - 29 January 2018

5. How the Suu Kyi - Richardson clash unfolded: The Irrawaddy - 1 February 2018

6. ASEAN Focus Mar /Apr 2018 - Interview with Dr Surakiart Sathirathai: Insider View

7. Dr  Surakiart refutes criticism by Secretary Kobsak - Reuters 22 July 2018

8. Rakhine State Advisory Board submits its final report - GNLM 17 August 2018

9. Advisory Board holds Press Conference in Nay Pyi Taw - Presidential Office 17 August 2018

J. Advisory Commission on Rakhine State: September 2016 - August 2017

1. Final Report August 2017

2. Overview of Key Points of Final Report

3. News Release about Final Report

4. Remarks by Kofi Annan, Chairman of the Advisory Commission

5. Annan Advisory Commission Interim Report and Recommendations - March 2017

6. Myanmar Government welcomes Annan Advisory Commission Interim Report

K. International Crisis Group

  1. Ethnic Autonomy and its Consequences in post-coup Myanmar - 30 May 2024

L. Jacques Leider

(i). Torkel Opsahl Academic E-Publisher "Policy Briefs"

1. 'Recent Steps in Rakhine State's March' (PBS No. 144(2023))

2. 'The Arakan Army, Rakhine State, and the Promise of Arakan’s Independence'(PBS No. 128 (2022));

3. 'Rohingya: The Foundational Years' (PBS No. 123 (2020));

4. 'The Chittagonians in Colonial Arakan: Seasonal and Settlement Migrations' (PS No. 40 (2020));

5. 'Mass Departures in the Rakhine-Bangladesh Borderlands' (PBS No. 111 (2020));

6. 'Territorial Dispossession and Persecution in North Arakan (Rakhine), 1942-43' (PBS No. 101 (2020))

(ii). Miscellaneous

  1. Violence and Belonging: Conflict, War and Insecurity in Arakan 1942-1952 - March 2023
  2. The 'Chittagonians' in  Arakan". Film record of a lecture in Yangon - 16 November 2019 : Text
  3. Rohingya: The History of a Muslim Identity in Myanmar - Oxford Research Encyclopaedia - May 2018
  4. History and Victimhood: Engaging with Rohingya Issues - Insight Turkey January 2018
  5. From Arakan Mahomedans to Muslim Rohingyas - Towards an archive of naming practices - 2018
  6. "Frictions are less about Islamophobia than Rohingya-phobia": The Wire - September 2017
  7. Transmutations of the Rohingya Movement in the Post-2012 Crisis - Dec 2016
  8. Conflict and Violence in Arakan: the 1942 events and political identity formation - Feb 2017
  9. King Manh Co Mvan's Exile in Bengal: Legend, History and Context: JL and Kyaw Minn Htin
  10. Competing identities and the hybridized history of the Rohingyas: September 2015
  11. Identität und historisches Bewusstsein - October 2014
  12. Rohingya - The name, the movement, the quest for identity - January 2014
  13. Presentation on the conquest of Arakan - March 2013
  14. The political project of the Rohingyas - October 2012
  15. "Rohingya”: An historical and linguistic note - August 2012 
  16. "Rohingya", Rakhaing and the recent outbreak of violence - Burma Studies 2012
  17. Articles and Books written by Jacques Leider - EFEO

M. Thibaut d'Hubert

1.  Alaol and Middle Bengali Poetics in Arakan OUP 2018

2.  Interpreting Materials from the Mrauk-U period of Arakan (ca.1430-1784) JBS Vol.19-2 2015

3.  Patterns of Composition in the Bengali Literature of Arakan Open Book 2015

4.  Pirates, Poets and Merchants: Bengali Language and Literature in 17C Mrauk-U 2014

N. Activism

Dr. Maung Zarni campaigns internationally on behalf of the Rohingya. His website at this link contains a record of his presentations and interventions.

O. Historical Articles and Documents

Standing Back Row (from left): (1) ? (2) Ko Ba San (3) Azarul Haque, Vice-President RU AMA   (4) Minister U Raschid (5) Maung Tin, President RU AMA (6) Mr Rafique (7) Ko Khin Maung Myant

Kneeling Front Row (from left): (1) Dr Kyaw Hla (2) Ko Quader (3) Ko Ba Tha (4) Ko Sultan    (5) ? (6) Ko Ha Tin 

P. 2016-2022

  1. The Emergence of the ULA/AA and The Question of the Rohingya Crisis: Kyaw Lynn TNI - 26 Jan 2023
  2. Actors influencing inter-communal relations in Rakhine State: Htet Paing Oo - 22 May 2021
  3. Elliott Prasse-Freeman and Kirt Mausert: Two sides of the same Arakanese coin: 2020
  4. Rohingya Repatriation: Has the World forgotten? Shariful Islam Modern Diplomacy 29 September 2020
  5. Arakan: A Land in Conflict: Martin Smith TNI - 18 December 2019
  6. The Religious Landscape in Myanmar's Rakhine State - Melyn McKay - USIP - August 2019
  7. Report into UN Involvement in Myanmar 2010-2018 - Gert Rosenthal - 29 May 2019
  8. Mr M A Gaffar (19-10-1966) and his 1948 Memorandum: Aman Ullah - Rohingya Post 5 April 2019
  9. The Killing Fields of Alethankyaw: Kaladan Press - November 2018
  10. Speech by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in Naypyitaw 19 September 2018
  11. The Plight of the Rohingya in Myanmar: Moshe Yegar IJFA 11 September 2018
  12. Documentation of Atrocities in Northern Rakhine: US State Department August 2018
  13. Myanmar's Armed Forces and the Rohingya Crisis - Andrew Selth USIP August 2018
  14. "They gave them long swords" - Preparations for genocide: Fortify Rights July 2018
  15. MISIS Background Paper on Rakhine State - Final Version 28 May 2018
  16. Myanmar's Annihilation of the Rohingya: International State Crime Initiative April 2018
  17. Pyithu Hluttaw discusses classification of ethnic nationals - GNLM 6 February 2018
  18. Reworking the Colonial Era Indian Peril - Zarni and Brinham: Brown Journal - December 2017
  19. Contexts of the 'Rohingya issue': Hans-Bernd Zöllner - 2017
  20. "Myanmar: Caged without a Roof": Amnesty International 21 November 2017
  21. National Races and the Exclusion of Rohingya from Taingyintha: Nick Cheesman 2017
  22. Unpacking the presumed statelessness of Rohingyas - Nyi Nyi Kyaw 2017
  23. Text of Email from Derek Tonkin analysing the 1973 Census
  24. US State Department Atrocities Prevention Report on Da'esh and Burma
Q. 2010-2015

  1. Problems with facts about Rohingya statelessness - Nick Cheesman December 2015
  2. Genocide in Myanmar? ESRC December 2015
  3. International State Crime Initiative Queen Mary London: Genocide in Myanmar October 2015
  4. Rapid descent into genocide in Myanmar? RCUK 2015
  5. Yale University Law School Clinic: Is genocide occurring in Rakhine State? October 2015
  6. Rohingya:  Snapshot of the Community in the 1960s - Ne Oo August 2015 - 1992 ABSDF Analysis
  7. The Politics of Ethnicity in Myanmar today: Robert H Taylor - ISEAS Perspective March 2015
  8. Ethnicity Codes used during the 2014 Census in Myanmar
  9. Formation of the concept of Myanmar Muslims as indigenous citizens - Saito Ayako -2014
  10. Rohingya Identity: Kyaw Min - August 2014
  11. A critique of "The slow-burning genocide of Myanmar's Rohingya" - Derek Tonkin 2016
  12. The slow-burning genocide of Myanmar's Rohingya - Zarni and Cowley 2014
  13. Myanmar to reexamine divisive birth rule: RFA - 31 May 2013
  14. Rohingya: thorny obstacle between Myanmar and Bangladesh - Kei Nemoto 2013
  15. An assessment of the question of Rohingya nationality - Kyaw Min 2012
  16. The problem of Muslim National identity in Myanmar - Myint Thein (a) Abdus Salaam 2012
  17. Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh and Thailand - Danish Immigration Service 2011
  18. Rohingya History - Myths and Reality: Zul Nurain 2010

R. 1990 - 2009

  1. A collection of 36 documents on Rohingya history - Rohingya Blogger
  2. Muslim Immigration into Arakan and their Political Movements - Myint Thein 2009
  3. EBO Briefing Paper No. 2/2009: The Rohingyas - Bengali Muslims or Arakan Rohingyas
  4. Les Rohingya de Birmanie (302 pages) - Stéphane Dovert 2007
  5. The Issue of Ethnicity in Arakan: Part 1 - Abu Anin aka Kyaw Min - 2007
  6. The Issue of Ethnicity in Arakan: Part 2 - Abu Anin aka Kyaw Min - 2007
  7. The Issue of Ethnicity in Arakan: Part 3 - Abu Anin aka Kyaw Min - 2007
  8. Salience of ethnicity among Burman Muslims - Khin Maung Yin 2005
  9. Burma's Muslims: Terrorists or Terrorised? Andrew Selth ANU SDSC - 2003
  10. Human Rights Abuses and Discrimination on Rohingyas: Zaw Min Htut - 2003
  11. The Muslims of Arakan - Moshe Yegar (Israel) - 2002
  12. Repatration of Rohingya refugees : Professor CR Abrar - University of Dhaka
  13. Michael W Charney: Theories and Histiography of the Religious Basis of Ethnonyms - 2005
  14. Michael W Charney: Doctoral Thesis on Arakan 15th - 19th Centuries - 1999   
  15. Michael W Charney: MA Thesis - Arakan, Min Yazagyi and the Portuguese - 1993
  16. Dr Abdul Karim: The Rohingyas - A Short Account of their Culture and History - Chittagong 2000
  17. The Muslim Rohingya of Burma - Martin Smith 1995
  18. The Muslim population in Arakan - Peter Nicolaus, Senior Repatriation Officer, 1995
  19. A History of Arakan (Past and Present) - Dr Mohammed Yunus 1994 
  20. The Inside Story of the Rohingyas: Sithu Aung WPD/BPS  7-10 February 1992
  21. Statement by the MFA of Myanmar on "Rohingyas" dated 21 February 1992
  22. Text of Bangladesh-Myanmar Joint Statement of 28 April 1992

S. 1959 - 1989

  1. The Problem of the Burmese Muslims: Mujtaba Razvi - Pakistan Horizon 1978
  2. The Muslims of Burma - Moshe Yegar (Israel), Heidelberg University 1972
  3. The Crescent in the East - Moshe Yegar 1989 - The Muslims of Burma
  4. A critique of the eight articles listed below by U Ba Tha: Derek Tonkin October 2015
  5. A Brief Study of the Rohingyas in Arakan: U Ba Tha - The Islamic Review April 1966
  6. The coming of Islam to Arakan: U Ba Tha - Guardian Magazine March 1965
  7. The early Hindus and Tibeto-Burmans in Arakan: U Ba Tha - Guardian November 1964
  8. Minority Peoples in the Union of Burma: George A Theodorson - JESH Vol. 5 No 1 March 1964
  9. A Short History of Rohingya and Kaman of Burma: U Ba Tha December 1963
  10. Akyab, the Capital of Arakan - U Tha Htu: The Guardian August 1963
  11. The Mayu Frontier Administrative Area - U Tha Htu: The Guardian February 1962
  12. Rohengya Affairs - A critique of U Ba Tha's articles: Seit Twe Maung - Tanzaung 1961
  13. Rowengya Fine Arts: U Ba Tha February 1961
  14. Arakan Muslims ask for Constitutional Safeguards - The Nation 27 October 1960
  15. Slave raids in Bengal: U Ba Tha - Guardian Magazine October 1960
  16. "Unity among ourselves": Mohamed Akram Ali - Guardian Magazine August 1960
  17. "Ruhangyas against Arakan Statehood" - Guardian Daily 3 August 1960
  18. Roewengyas in Arakan: U Ba Tha - Guardian Magazine May 1960
  19. Shah Shujah in Arakan: U Ba Tha - Guardian Magazine September 1959

T. 1750 - 1958

  1. Articles on "The State of Arakan" by "ASMI" (U Thaung Myine): Guardian Monthly 1954
  2. Extract on Arakan Muslims from the third article by "ASMI" - October 1954
  3. The 1953-54 Census. Background Article (1954) by UN Census Advisor to Burma Milton D Lieberman
  4. Extracts from the Report of the First Stage Census of 1953
  5. Charter of Constitutional Demands of Arakani Muslims - 1951 
  6. Article in 'The Scotsman': Michael Davidson Special Correspondent - 18 May 1949
  7. Central Arakanese Muslim Refugee Organisation: Two Resolutions in 1949  
  8. Address by the Jamiat Ul Ulema North Arakan on 25 October 1948 to Prime Minister U Nu
  9. Text of Memorandum by the Jamait Ul Ulema to the Burmese Government - 18 June 1948
  10. Representations in 1947 to Arthur Bottomley (PUS)  by the Jamiat Ul Ulema, and related papers
  11. Related to No. 5: Notification No. 110 A-CC/42 dated 31 December 1942
  12. A Buddhist account of violence against Buddhists in Northern Arakan in 1942
  13. A Muslim account of violence against Muslims in Southern Arakan in 1942
  14. Notes on Arakan 1834-1844 - Rev. GS Comstock American Baptist Missionary
  15. Francis Buchanan in Southeast Bengal 1798 - Willem van Schendel 1992
  16. Extracts from van Schendel's account

U. Du Chee Yar Tan Investigation Commission Report February 2014

  1. Full report in Burmese by the Investigation Commission (110 pages - 6.65 MB)
  2. Extract - UN "Confidential Incident Report" in English (Pages 75-80)
  3. Summary Report in English of the Du Chee Yar Tan Incident
  4. Appointment of Investigation Commission - New Light of Myanmar
  5. Leaked Documents and UN Failure to Protect - Emanuel Stoakes - 22 May 2016
  6. An uncorroborated Report on the Incident from a private source (1)
  7. Another uncorroborated Report on the Incident from the same private source (2)

V. Rakhine Commission Report April 2013 and related documents

  1. Executive Summary of the Special Commission's Report issued on 22 April 2013
  2. List of detailed recommendations made in the Report released on 22 April 2013
  3. Final Report of the Commission of Inquiry in English dated 8 July 2013
  4. OHCHR internal report on the disturbances and on the humanitarian response - April 2013 
  5. Abbot of Shwe Zaydi tells US Dep Asst Sec Joseph Yun about the status of Bengalis - 2012
  6. UN rejects Thein Sein's potential Rohingya plan - DVB 13 July 2012
  7. Government will not recognise Rohingya: DVB 12 July 2012
  8. Statement on 12 July 2012 after a meeting with UNHCR Antonio Guterres on 11 July 2012
  9. Another version of this statement from accessed 24 December 2019
  10. Call to put Rohingya in refugee camps: Radio Free Asia 12 July 2012

W. Human Rights Watch, Fortify Rights and Physicians for Human Rights

  1. Burma: The Rohingya Muslims - Human Rights Watch 1996
  2. Patterns of anti-Muslim violence - Physicians for Human Rights August 2013
  3. Policies of Persecution - Fortify Rights February 2014 [45 MB download]
  4. "All you can do is pray" - Human Rights Watch April 2013
  5. Burma: Revoke 'Two-Child' Policy' for Rohingya: HRW - 28 May 2013
  6. Previously unpublished interview with William Schabas: Fortify Rights - 6 March 2020
  7. Interview with William Schabas: YouTube - 6 March 2020
  8. Myanmar: Rohingya await justice, safe return, three years on - 24 August 2020

X. Khin Maung Saw and Nurul Islam

  1. Geopolitics of the Powers and Bengali Problems in Burma - Khin Maung Saw 2014
  2. Analysis of Buchanan's 'Rooingas' and 'Rossawns' - Khin Maung Saw 2013
  3. Islamanisation of Burma through Chittagonian Bengalis - Khin Maung Saw 2011
  4. On the evolution of the 'Rohingya' problem - Khin Maung Saw, Berlin, 2005
  5. The origin of the name "Rohingya" - Khin Maung Saw Humboldt University - 1993
  6. Rebuttal to U Khin Maung Saw's misinformation on Rohingya - Nurul Islam (UK) 2012
  7. Rohingya tangled in Burma citizenship politics - Nurul Islam (UK) 2012

Y. Dr Aye Chan

  1. Burma’s Western Border 1947-1975 – Dr Aye Chan, Kanda Journal Vol.2, 2011
  2. The development of a Muslim enclave in Arakan - Dr Aye Chan, SOAS May 2005
  3. The illegal Muslims in Arakan - Dr Aye Chan and Shwe Zan 2005

Z(i).  British Records and Reminiscences 

  1. Record of call on Bangladeshi Ambassador in Rangoon - 23 December 1975
  2. Malayan Spymaster: Boris Hembry - The meaning of "CFs" in Arakan - 2011
  3. Letter from British Ambassador Rangoon to London about Burma-Bangladesh 14 January 1972
  4. The Raiders of Arakan [1943-45]: CE Lucas Phillips 1971
  5. Abolition of the Frontier Areas Administration: Letter from Rangoon 12 October 1965
  6. Despatch on visit to Burma by Pakistan Foreign Minister: - 1964
  7. British Embassy Rangoon - Letter on immigration initialled FA Warner 21 January 1958
  8. The Mujahid rebellion in Arakan: Professor R B Pearn Foreign Office 1952
  9. The Mujahid rebellion - Commentary by Derek Tonkin: 17 September 2014
  10. The British Military Administration of North Arakan 1942-43: Peter Murray
  11. References to "Rwangya" in 1949 and 1951 (?) FO documents
  12. A 1949 UK Foreign Office perspective on the troubles in Arakan
  13. SECRET Pakistani Intelligence Report on the Mujahid in Arakan 1948-49
  14. Full Report of the Frontier Areas Committee of Enquiry 1947
  15. Memories of Burma: North Arakan 1944-1945 - Robert Mole
  16. Descriptions of the Inhabitants of the Arakan - Annex to DIS No 349 of 29 August 1943
  17. Extract from Anthony Irwin's 'Burma Outpost' Arakan 1942
  18. Burma Civil List 1942 [Simla]

Z(ii). British Census Records and Reports 1872-1941

  1. Miscellaneous Annual Reports on the Administration of British Burma
  2. Summary Record of 1941 Census only - detailed records did not survive the 1941-1945 War
  3. Report on Indian Immigration - Financial Secretary James Baxter - 1941
  4. Final Report of the (1938 anti-Muslim) Riot Inquiry Committee :1939 -  Pages on Arakan
  5. Report of the Royal Commission on Labour in India: Vol. X Burma - 1931
  6. Report of the 1872 Census

Z(iii). British Gazeteers and Other Reports

  1. 1917 Gazetteer of Akyab (Sittwe + Maungdaw Districts): R B Smart - Volume A
  2. 1912 Tables in Volume B of the Akyab Gazetteer
  3. 1912 Gazetteer of Sandoway (Thandwe): W B Tydd - Volume A
  4. 1924 Tables in Volume B of the Sandoway Gazetteer
  5. Extract from the 1908 Gazetteer of Chittagong: Lewis Sydney Steward O'Malley
  6. Note on Population  Growth 1826-72: J S Furnivall - Colonial Policy 1948
  7. Arakan: Past-Present-Future: John Ogilvy Hay 1892
  8. Extract on "Magh" from "The Tribes and Castes of Bengal" Herbert Risley 1891
  9. Akyab - Extracts from "Settlement" reports of 1901-2 and 1913-17
  10. Emigration from Bengal to Burma: The Nolan Report of 1888
  11. Akyab - Settlement (land rental) report for the 1885-86 season
  12. Akyab - Settlement (land rental) report for the 1886-87 season
  13. Akyab - Settlement (land rental) report for the 1887-88 season
  14. Akyab-Tenerassim-Pegu: Revenue Settlement for the Season 1867-68
  15. British Burma Gazetteer Vol II 1879 - Selected pages on Aykyab town and district
  16. Account of Arakan: Lieut. Phayre Senior Assistant Commissioner - JAS Vol. 117 - 1841
  17. General Remarks on the Coast of Arracan: Captain Laws HMS Satellite RGSL 1831
  18. Political Incidents of the First Burmese War: TC Robertson - Google Play
  19. Charles Paton: Aracan - Asiatic Researches Volume XVI 1828
  20. Sub-Commissioner Charles Paton: A Short Report on Arakan 1826 - Scribd
  21. An Account of Arakan: Major RE Roberts June 1777

Z(iv). Miscellaneous Records and Reports

  1. Muslim population growth and migration from Bangladesh - Ash Center Harvard
  2. Defining Myanmar's 'Rohingya Problem' - Benjamin Zawacki, July 2013
  3. The Rohingya Problem: Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4 : Habib Siddiqui 2012 
  4. Burma's treatment of the Rohingya and international law - BCUK 2013 
  5. A Short History of Myanmar Muslims - Dr Myint Thein 2012 (in Burmese)
  6. Marginalization of the Rohingya in Arakan - Mohammed Ashraf Alam - 2011
  7. North Arakan: An open prison for the Rohingya in Burma - Chris Lewa 2009
  8. Rohingya Hoax - Maung Tha Lha, New York, 2009
  9. The Crescent in Arakan: Moshe Yegar (date unknown) - Kaladan Press 2006
  10. Current state of infiltration into Arakan - Major Hla Myaing 1983 (in Burmese)

Z(v). Legal and Linguistic


  1. Interpretations of Burmese words: 'kala' ('kula'): Khin Maung Saw - Moemaka January 2016
  2. Chittagonian: Dialect, Language or Semi-Language? M A Hoque December 2015
  3. Rohingya/Bengali: A snapshot of the community in the 1960s - U Ne Oo: August 2015
  4. Pyithu Hluttaw statement on origins of the 135 national races - 27 February 2013
  5. Legal nexus between Rohingya and the State - U Kyaw Min 2012
  6. Report on Rohingya crisis: ABSDF 1992  
  7. List of 135 national races - published in Working People's Daily on 26 September 1990
  8. Speech by Gen Saw Maung setting out national race philosophy - 5 July 1989
  9. Extract from GH Luce "Phases of Pre-Pagan Burma" mentioning "Rohinja" - OUP 1985
  10. 1983 Census Report - All-Union
  11. 1983 Census Report - Rakhine State
  12. List of 144 ethnicities approved for the 1973 Census
  13. Short List of 144 ethnicities
  14. Text of Email from Derek Tonkin analysing the 1973 Census
  15. 1973 Census Report: Appendix on Arakan - Burmese language only.
  16. 1973 Census Report - Burmese language only
  17. An analysis of the 1973 Census: M. Israel Khin Maung - E.W Population Institute 1986
  18. A comparison of the 1973 and 1983 Censuses - S Gunasekaran and Mya Than 1988
  19. An article in the Myanmar Encyclopedia of 1964 about the Mayu Frontier District

  20. Another unofficial translation of Lt Gen Aung Gyi's speech on 4 July 1961

  21. An account in a 1961 Tatmadaw magazine of the surrender of rebels in Arakan
  22. On Lt. Gen Aung Gyi's speech in Maungdaw in 1961
  23. Reports in the Guardian of Mujahid surrenders in July and November 1961

1795 - 1954

  1. Study of languages spoken in the Burma Empire - Francis Buchanan 1799
  2. An account of an Embassy to Ava in 1795 - Major Symes 1800
  3. Extract: The Classical Journal - September and December 1811
  4. Extract: Index Alphabeticus quarum collectiones vocabularum JS Vater1815
  5. Extract: Proben Deutscher Volks-Mundarten - JS Vater Leipzig 1816
  6. Extract: Hindostan - Arracan: Walter Hamilton 1820 sourced from Francis Buchanan
  7. Extract: Atlas Ethnographique du Globe - Adrien Balbi Paris 1826
  8. Extract: Litteratur der Grammatiken, Lexika und Wörterversammlungen - JS Vater Berlin 1847
  9. Extract: An Account of the Burman Empire - HG Bell 1852 sourced from Francis Buchanan
  10. Legal nexus between Rohingya and the State - U Kyaw Min 2012
  11. Maung Zarni's collection of documents with early references to "Rohingya"
  12. Abdul Gaffar's Memorandum of 20 November 1948 
  13. Alleged reference to 'Ruhingya' [sic] in a broadcast 'lesson on religion' by PM U Nu in 1954


1940 Report on Indian Immigration 

In 1939 the Governor of Burma appointed a Commission of Inquiry to examine the question of Indian immigration into Burma. It was prompted by communal disturbances during the previous year due to “the existence of a serious misapprehension in the minds of many Burmans that Indian immigration was largely responsible for unemployment or under-employment among the indigenous population of Burma” (Joint Indo-Burmese Statement - See Page 8 of Part B). The Commission was headed by James Baxter, Financial Secretary, Tin Tut, Barrister-at-Law and the first Burmese member of the prestigious Indian Civil Service, and Ratilal Desai MA.

[After the war Tin Tut became Financial Adviser to the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League and accompanied Aung San to London in January 1947. His assassination in Rangoon in December 1948 is discussed on pages 399-400 of the enthralling study, published in 2007, of the end of Britain’s Asian Empire: “Forgotten Wars” by Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper.]

We attach a full copy of the Report of the Commission completed in October 1940 and published in Rangoon in 1941 by the Government Printing and Stationery Office. The Report made recommendations which were generally accepted by the Governments of Burma and India as a basis for negotiation and were finalised in an Agreement between the two Governments - See Page 9 of Part B). The Agreement provided that the existing Immigration Order of 1937 would continue at least until 1 October 1945, while Indian immigration into Burma would be subject to the new rules contained in the Agreement with effect from 1 October 1941. On 8 December 1941 the UK declared war on Japan, and the rapid invasion of Burma by Japanese forces meant that the Agreement never came into effect.

We present in two parts:

Part A  

  • Preface to the Report
  • Chapters I (Introductory)
  • Chapter II (Growth in Indian Population)

Part B

  • Chapter III (Birthplace)
  • Chapter VII (Arakan)
  • Joint Statement of the Governments of India and Burma
  • Text of Indo-Burma Immigration Agreement 1941
  • Note by Harold F Dunkley, Legal Adviser

The Report is available in at least 20 Libraries around the World including the UK, US, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland and Myanmar.

It is particularly worthy of note that:

  • Nowhere in the Report, nor in the scores of papers associated with the Report in the National Archives and the British Library in the UK, does the designation “Rohingya” appear in any shape or form. From 1824 to 1948, the term was not used by, and would seem to have been unknown to the British administrations of either India or Burma.
  • “There was an Arakanese Muslim community settled so long in Akyab (Sittwe) District that it had for all intents and purposes to be regarded as an indigenous race.” (Paragraph 7). This theme of the “indigenous” nature of Muslims permanently resident in Arakan is repeated in the Report and provision is made in Article 19 of the Agreement for Indians (whatever their religion) born in Burma to acquire domicile. Prior to 1947, nationality was not an issue as residents of both Burma and British India enjoyed the status of "British Subjects" and the concept of "citizenship" had not yet come into effect.


British Ambassador Richard Allen reports on Arkanese affairs - 10 May 1957
In a despatch to London in May 1957, Ambassador Richard Allen reported that during a recent session of the Burmese Parliament, a redoutable Member of Parliament, U Kyaw Min, barrister and former member of the Indian Civil Service, had presented in strong terms during a speech made on the 15th March 1957 the grievances and aspirations of Rakhine politicians and the local population. He noted in his despatch: "The intemperance of U Kyaw Min's speech caused an uproar and the Speaker directed that it should not be published". However, the Ambassador obtained a copy and the speech soon became public knowledge. 
It is worthy of particular note that U Kyaw Min did not refer to the Muslim community in Arakan during his speech, which was directed rather against the central governement of U Nu and his Anti Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), both seen as the source of all Rakhine tribulations.
Later in 1957, U Kyaw Min was able to publish a paper in amplification of his speech. This paper reproduced the essence of his remarks, adding one short paragraph only about the "Chittagonian problem", saying that this was not serious as Chittagonians came to Arakan "as servants and labourers and as such they were wanted in Arakan" and when they settled as peasants "there was enough room for them because of the lack of Arakanese farmers. The first clash between them was with the advent of the Japanese in 1942. But that is a story apart."

Rohingyas: An Historical Note 
The Guardian (Rangoon) - 6 July, 12 November and 16 November 1961 
These pages from The Guardian in 1961 record the surrender of Mujahid insurgents at formal ceremonies at Maungdaw, Mayu Frontier District, Rakhine State, on 4 July and 15 November 1961. The ceremonies were presided over by the Vice-Chief of the General Staff, Brigadier (later Brigadier General) Aung Gyi. At the ceremony on 4 July 1961, he is reported in The Guardian to have made the following comments: 
"Rohinja is one of the minorities of the Union and Rohinjas must be loyal" 

"The VCGS (Brigadier Aung Gyi) pointed out that like all other minorities such as Nagas, Shans, Yingphaws [a minority in Kachin State], Lisus, people of Chinese origin in Kokang and others who live on both sides of the 2,000 mile long frontier, there are people of Chittagonian origin living on both sides of the border. As Lisus on the Burmese side of the frontier is [are] taken as Burmese citizens, similar status applies to the Rohinjas who have been residing on Burmese side of the border for generations. But those minorities must be loyal to the Union, Brigadier Aung Gyi emphasized......

"In a 45 minute long speech VCGS impressed on the Rohinjas that they were Union citizens and there was no racial or religious discrimination in the country and that everyone in the Union are brothers and sisters of one big family.

"He stressed the need for every Union citizen to be loyal to the Union and to cooperate with the authorities to establish the rule of law and restore peace and security in the country....."

The full text of Brigadier Aung Gyi's speech on 4 July 1961 in Burmese may be found at this link.

Derek Tonkin writes: The articles are unequivocal in two respects. Firstly, that according to the VCGS  those who call themselves Rohinja/Rohingya are Union citizens and one of the ethnic minorities of the Union, but secondly that they are of Chittagonian origin living on both sides of the border, in what was then still East Pakistan, as well as in Arakan.

Archival and Historical

Researchers may wish to know that the Foreign and Commonwealth Office has now released files for 1982 relating to Burma/Myanmar. These include File FCO 15/3177 “Burmese Citizenship Law 1982” which includes diplomatic reporting on the significance of the Act, from both British and Australian sources.

While the Act is described by First Secretary Roger Leeland as “blatantly discriminatory on racial grounds”, he observes that “it would be possible to argue that the new Law is a generous and far-sighted instrument to resolve over a period of years an awkward legacy of the colonial era”. Second Secretary Roland Rich at the Australian Embassy comments that “…..the discretion given to the executive branch of government, unchecked by even the possibility of judicial review, means that judgement must be reserved until there has been an opportunity to assess the spirit in which the Law will be implemented.”

Derek Tonkin writes: These reports merit close reading because they support the conclusion today that it is not so much the letter of the Act as the subsequent bureaucratic obstruction which has led to the very serious difficulties over citizenship which Arakan Muslims in Rakhine State face today. See also Problems with facts about Rohingya statelessness - Nick Cheesman December 2015 in this context.

The August 1963 edition of “The Guardian Monthly” carried an 
informative article on “Akyab [Sittwe], the Capital of Arakan” by leading writer Tha Htu, who lambasts “the ungracious politicians of Akyab who indiscriminately go in for black-market, smuggling and harbouring or bringing illegal immigrants from East Pakistan to get into electoral rolls for their sake of their party [the AFPFL dissolved the previous year]. He refers also to “those slave labourers” known as “Royankya or Arakanese Muslims” and observes: “The immigrants of the Chittagonian race find their way into the society of the local Royankya and gradually they become absorbed with them. Eventually they also claim to be Royangya [sic], descendants of the Muslim slaves in Arakan. Consequently, the Arakanese are slowly but surely being ousted by the peaceful penetration of the Chittagonians in every walk of life.” [Akyab District was later split into Sittwe and Maungdaw Districts.]
The extent to which Chittagonian migrants into Arakan have usurped
the identity of the indigenous Arakan Muslims was also the subject of a hard hitting article by Seit Twe Maung, quite possibly a pseudonym, entitled “Rohengya affairs" in the publication “Rakhine Tanzaung Magazine” Vol. 2 No. 9 1960-61. While expressing his sympathy for “those Arakan Muslims who have stayed among us for generations. We will continue to regard them as our kinsmen and our brethren”, he criticises Muslim writer Ba Tha for a recent publication about the history of “Roewengyas” and concludes: “It is quite clear why Ba Tha and his comrades are trying to create these Chittagonian settlers as an indigenous separate race.” Ba Tha’s article asserted that the descendants of early Arab settlers were called Rowenhynas who later became Roewanyas. Seit Twe Maung clearly doesn’t believe a word of all this and tells us why in considerable detail.